After a delay of more than two hours, the players returned for 12 balls, during which Kohli and Pujara groped around trying to find the ball as Anderson and Stuart Broad terrorised them under leaden skies.
After rain meant there was no play on Thursday, Anderson struck with the fifth ball of the match when Murali Vijay, aiming legside, was undone by late outswing and bowled for a duck.
That brought 20-year-old debutant Ollie Pope to the crease and he acquitted himself well, getting off the mark with a boundary whipped behind square and swiftly reaching 28 before Hardik Pandya skidded one though to trap him in front.
Left-arm spinner Kuldeep Yadav was brought in for seamer Umesh Yadav, joining Ashwin in the slow bowling department.
As expected England gave a Test debut to 20-year-old Surrey batsman Pope, who has competed in only 15 first-class matches but takes the place of the dropped Dawid Malan.